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In the earliest historical sources from the 12th and 13th centuries, the term Finland refers to the coastal region around Turku from Perniö to Uusikaupunki.This region later became known as Finland Proper in distinction from the country name Finland.The word originally referred only to the province of Finland Proper, and later to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later.Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa (fen land) or suoniemi (fen cape), and parallels between saame (Sami, a Finno-Ugric people in Lapland), and Häme (a province in the inland) were drawn, but these theories are now considered outdated.In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, and the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office.

The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones.

Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, and finally the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.

Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s.

Finland joined the United Nations in 1955 and established an official policy of neutrality.

The Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era.

The country has land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east.

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